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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2020
Volume 5 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 43-64

Online since Wednesday, December 30, 2020

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RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Comparison of factor structure and psychometric properties of original and abbreviated version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in a nonclinical sample: a cross-sectional psychometric study p. 43
Alireza Rashtbari, Hossein Malekizadeh, Omid Saed
DOI:10.4103/2542-3932.304944  
Background and objectives: Worry as a main symptom of generalized anxiety disorder is a chain of repetitive and uncontrollable thoughts about possible negative events in the future. The Penn State Worry Questionnaire is one of the most widely used measures for assessing pathological worry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the abbreviated version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A) and to compare it with the original version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) in a nonclinical sample. Participants and methods: The present study is a cross-sectional psychometric study. The statistical population of this study consisted of all students studying at Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (n = 3500) from January to October 2018. A sample of 350 people was selected for the study. Research measures were the PSWQ-A, PSWQ, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) Scale. The present study was carried out after approval of Social Determinants of Health Research Center of Zanjan University of Medical Science with the project code of A-12-924-5 on October 7, 2017. The project was also approved by the Ethics Committee of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences on October 17, 2017 and the approval ID was IR.ZUMS.REC.1396.187. Results: Exploratory factor analysis, scree plot, and parallel analysis supported the single factor structure PSWQ-A. The total variance explained by the single-factor model of PSWQ-A was higher (53.1% versus 49.1%). Generally, fit indices for the PSWQ-A was better fitted than the PSWQ. Both measures had acceptable convergent validity (r=0.52 for both questionnaires) and satisfactory internal consistency (α=0.87 for both questionnaires). Conclusion: PSWQ-A has better psychometric properties compared to PSWQ, and it can be used for faster and more accurate assessment of worry in psychological studies and therapeutic settings.
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Key enzymes of glutamate metabolisms in the brain of neonatal and adult rats exposed to monosodium glutamate p. 51
Uche Stephen Akataobi
DOI:10.4103/2542-3932.304946  
Background and objectives: Despite the effective role of monosodium glutamate as a food additive, there are claims indicating that monosodium glutamate consumption increases the level of glutamate an excitatory neurotransmitter which can be toxic to the brain in accumulated level. The present study attempted to understand the differential effect of monosodium glutamate on key enzymes of glutamate metabolisms in rat brain exposed either as neonate or adult to monosodium glutamate. Methods: The rat neonates were divided into six groups with seven animals per group and exposed to different concentrations of monosodium glutamate as neonates only (normal saline or monosodium glutamate 4 mg/g), neonate plus adults (monosodium glutamate 5 or 10 mg/g) and adult only (monosodium glutamate 5 or 10 mg/g). Key enzymes of glutamate metabolisms were measured in whole brain homogenates. All experiments were approved by the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences University of Calabar and ethics committee-04/11/2018. Results: Except neonate plus adult 5 mg/g group, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthetase activities were significantly higher in administered groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in glutamate synthetase activity among monosodium glutamate administered groups (P > 0.05). The glutamate carboxylase activity was significantly higher in all monosodium glutamate administered groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). The brain alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities of rats in each monosodium glutamate administered group increased in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Exposure to monosodium glutamate can increase the activities of key enzymes of glutamate metabolism in the brain of neonate and adult rats similarly, which is not determined by age difference.
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Effect of Ayurveda gut therapy protocol in managing dysbiosis of children with autism: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial p. 58
Dinesh Karayil Subramanian, Anita Patel, Madathaniyil Joseph George, Swapna Chitra Sugunanandagopan, Santhi Krishna, Sujitha Variyattukunnu Kelu, Jayakrishnan Kalluvirath, Archana Madhavi
DOI:10.4103/2542-3932.304945  
Background and objectives: Emerging evidences indicate an invariable relationship between gut dysbiosis and neurobehavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. In India, Ayurveda is widely accepted among the complementary and alternative medicine. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an Ayurveda gut therapy protocol in autism spectrum disorder. Subjects and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 children with autism spectrum disorder admitted to Vaidyaratnam P S Varier Ayurveda College, India will be randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group will undergo Ayurveda gut therapy protocol for 30 days and interdisciplinary interventions for 2 months, whereas the control group will undergo only interdisciplinary interventions for 2 months. A final assessment will be done on the 60 th day. Patient recruitment began in July 2018. The primary and secondary outcome measure will be completed in January 2021 and the study will be completed in September 2022. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee of Vaidyaratnam P S Varier Ayurveda College, India (Proceedings No: IEC/CI/24/17) on May 4, 2017. Protocol version: 1.0. Outcome measures: The expected primary outcome is to assess the quality and quantity of the gut microbes through 16s rRNA sequencing. The secondary outcome expected is the changes in the neurobehavioral symptoms assessed through the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and also changes in the gastrointestinal symptoms assessed through Ayurveda Gut Health Assessment Questionnaire. Discussion: The current protocol discusses the relationship between Autism and gut dysbiosis and its management through Ayurveda, and provides evidence for the rationality of using Ayurveda gut therapy as an alternative therapy for autism spectrum disorder in clinical practice. Trial registration: The study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry of India (registration No. CTRI/2018/05/014017, registered on May 21, 2018).
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